Single Stage Base Recipes

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Single Stage Base Processing is the most often used style of making biodiesel. There is no one single recipe for biodiesel that fits everyone's needs. That is because we make compromises when building our recipe. Quality and Cost are the two biggest factors influencing the compromise. There are other minor influences like the ease of production, safety, the time required, feedstock oil type, and processor design.

Biodiesel in a Separatory Funnel

Most people use and have good results with The Standard Recipe for Biodiesel. Some engines demand the highest quality biodiesel you can make. If you want to make the highest quality biodiesel possible, then follow the ASTM Recipe for Biodiesel below.

Most of the older IDI diesel engines can run a much lower quality biodiesel. If you want to make the cheapest fuel that can burn in an IDI diesel engine without modification, then follow the High Yield Recipe for Biodiesel.

Whatever your goals, there is a recipe for you.

The Standard Recipe for Biodiesel

 

When using this recipe for higher titration oils, I recommend KOH over NaOH as a catalyst.
  

  • Methanol = 22% by volume of the WVO used
  • NaOH = (5 grams + Titration ) X liters of oil
  • OR
  • KOH = (8 grams + Titration ) X liters of oil

Temperature 130°F - 150°F

While oil is heating mix methanol and caustic.

Once the oil is up to temperature add the methanol.

In an Appleseed, it should take one minute for each gallon of WVO to add the methanol. If you have a 35-gallon batch, it should take 35 minutes to introduce the methanol.

On your first few batches, you should perform the methanol test every 20 minutes until it passes. Once it passes the test, then record the total mixing time and stop mixing. If it takes longer than three hours to pass, then consider increasing the caustic for the next batch.

High Yield Recipe for Biodiesel

 

Know that this recipe does not make ASTM fuel. It makes a blend of WVO and Biodiesel that sufficiently lowers viscosity such that older IDI engines can use it without modification to the engine. The biodiesel from this recipe may damage Direct Injection or Common Rail diesel engines.

Biodiesel Processor

  • Methanol 14% by volume of the WVO used
  • NaOH (3.5 grams + Titration) X Liters of oil
  • OR
  • KOH (5.5 grams + Titration) X Liters of oil

Temperature 130°F – 150°F

While oil is heating mix methanol and caustic.

Once the oil is up to temperature add the methanol.

In an Appleseed, it should take one minute for each gallon of WVO to add the methanol. If you have a 35-gallon batch, it should take 35 minutes to introduce the methanol.

Mix for one hour

Settle overnight

If you achieve separation then it is good enough

Some people using this recipe allow the fuel to air out and settle for a few days to a few weeks and use it unwashed.

ASTM Recipe for Biodiesel

 

As the titration levels of your feedstock oil increases it becomes more difficult to make ASTM level conversions. Neutral on Infopop suggested that increasing the catalyst by multiplying the titration number by a correction factor would help people to meet ASTM level conversion with high titration oils. The recipe is identical to the The Standard Recipe above except when calculating the amount of catalyst. In this recipe we first multiply the titration number by 1.15 then add that to our 5 gram base to come up with the grams of NaOH per Liter of WVO.

Compromises

We can fine-tune our recipe by altering the quantity of the ingredients slightly. If you cannot meet your quality standard, there are three basics you can adjust. Increasing methanol compensates for short mixing times and poor processor mixing. Increasing catalyst increases conversion and also increases soap production. Increasing mixing time can compensate (up to a point) for poor mixing or insufficient methanol or low processing temperatures. As a rule of thumb, keep the changes in your biodiesel recipe small.

More Biodiesel Recipes

Two Stage Base / Base Biodiesel Recipes
Two Stage Acid / Base Biodiesel Recipes